This report is an assessment of the Cuban threat to the United States national security. The assessment addresses the unconventional threats of biowarfare, cyberwarfare, and electronic espionage. Secretary of Defense, William Cohen,observed in his 1998 Annual Defense Report: "Those who oppose the United States will increasingly rely on unconventional strategies and tactics to offset U.S. superiority". He then mentioned asymmetric threats such as : information operations, cyberterrorism, and biowarfare.

Castro's Cuba is a prime example of a nation developing such unconventional or asymmetric methods of challenging or threatening the United States. In a letter to Secretary Cohen, dated March 31, 1998, then Speaker of the House of Representatives Newt Gingrich, wrote: " I am very concerned about recent reports indicating that Castro's secretive network of sophisticated biological and genetic research labs are being used by the military and Interior Ministry to develop biological weapons".

On the March 31, 1998 edition, the Washington Post addressed the topic of the threat from Cuba, partially stating " Cuba has one of the most sophisticated biotech and pharmaceutical industries in the hemisphere. Because lethal biological materials can be produced by countries with biotech industries, it is difficult to determine when a country moves from simply having the capability to produce deadly viruses, to the intent or plans to do so".

Given Castro's proven instability, ongoing anti-Americanism, and proximity to the U.S., it would be an unacceptable mistake to underestimate his capabilities or his intentions. A report submitted by the U.S. Office of Technological Assessment in late 1995 identified seventeen countries believed to possess biological weapons- Lybia, North Korea, South Korea, Iraq, Taiwan, Syria, Israel, Iran, China, Egypt, Vietnam, Laos, Bulgaria, India, South Africa, Russia, and Cuba. In an appearance before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, January, 1998, Louis J. Freeh, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, stated " State sponsors of terrorism include Iran, Iraq, Syria, Sudan, Libya, North Korea, and Cuba".

It has long been a concern also in the scientific community that Soviet scientists led the world in development of Radio Frequency weapon technologies. The Soviet Union had a large and diverse RF weapons program and this work continue today within FSU countries. It is well known the close technical and military relationship in this field between the Soviet Union and Cuba. The relationship includes the establishment of the Lourdes' electronic espionage base, operated in Cuba by the Russians, and most recently, the construction of a similar base in Bejucal, operated solely by Cuban personnel.

The findings presented in this study clearly show that Cuba represents a serious threat to the security of the United States in the areas of bio-warfare, electronic espionage, and cyber-terrorism.

Ing. Manuel Cereijo

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